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Patching SharePoint is a two-step process. The updated binaries are first installed and then psconfig must be run to update the SharePoint databases

SharePoint Foundation 2010 changes the method in which patches are installed. PSconfig no longer runs automatically after an update is installed. The SharePoint binary files are updated with the patch but the databases are not automatically upgraded. SharePoint runs in a compatibility mode that still allows the sites to function with the older version databases.

In order to update the SharePoint databases, you must manually run the PSconfig utility. To run the utility:

1. Open a Sharepoint 2010 Management Shell as administrator.
2. Run PSConfig.exe -cmd upgrade -inplace b2b -force -cmd applicationcontent -install -cmd installfeatures
3. If you run into issues running the above script, please us the below script with added command
4. Run PSConfig.exe -cmd upgrade -inplace b2b -force -cmd applicationcontent -install -cmd installfeatures -cmd installcheck -noinstallcheck

The SharePoint configuration wizard will launch and perform the configuration tasks.

Note: The Sharepoint site will be inaccessible while the command is running. It is best to run the command after business hours. The amount of time the command takes to run will vary on the size of the database and the speed of the machine. On a reference machine with 8 logical processors, 32GB of RAM and a 2GB content database, the command took approximately 5 minutes to execute.

If the SharePoint Health Analyzer detects an upgrade is required for the configuration database, it will log the following error in the application event log